Ghana: How Exchange Rates Work and How to Get the Best
Transferring money overseas and exchanging currencies has become common practice for many people in Ghana. But even those who regularly transfer money abroad can find it difficult to understand how the exchange rate works.
Exchange rates have a crucial impact on the trade and economic performance of a country and often they have an indirect impact on many different areas of your daily life, from the cost of your groceries in the local market to the cost of fuel, job opportunities and even the interest rate of your bank loans.
To help you get a good deal on your next money transfer, Gbenga Okejimi, Country Manager, Nigeria and Ghana, WorldRemit shares some insight into how the exchange rate works.
What is an exchange rate?
The exchange rate is the amount that one currency is worth in relation to another currency. For many of us, the only time we deal directly with them is when it comes to traveling or sending money overseas.
Which is better – a high or low exchange rate?
A higher exchange rate is better if you’re buying or sending currency, as it means you get more currency for your money. A lower rate is better if you are selling the currency. This way you can take advantage of the lower exchange rate.
What is forex ?
FOREX (foreign exchange or FX) is a global market for currency trading used by individuals, businesses and banks. If you make a transaction that requires currency conversion, FOREX determines the value you get for your money.
To put things into perspective, if you bought a car from a dealership in Accra and paid in US dollars, you have made a FOREX transaction. However, a significant portion of foreign currency is used for practical purposes, such as when you travel or buy foreign goods. However, the majority of currency conversions are done to make a profit.
How often do exchange rates change?
The FOREX market never sleeps; it is active all day and all night. Exchange rates do not change once a day or even once an hour; they constantly fluctuate in response to Ghanaian economic and political changes and developments as they occur in the world.
What is a floating exchange rate?
A floating exchange rate is where the price of a nation’s currency is set by the foreign exchange market based on supply and demand relative to other currencies. This contrasts with a fixed exchange rate, where the government determines the rate. Most countries in the world use a floating exchange rate and when a country uses this type of exchange rate, its government actions can only influence the rate, not regulate it.
What is a fixed exchange rate?
A fixed exchange rate is a currency that is not influenced by FOREX. Instead, the government controls the rate and regulates its value. Countries with fixed exchange rates like Hong Kong, Denmark or Saudi Arabia usually fix the exchange rate against an internationally popular currency (US dollar or Euro). The government of the country then holds an abundant supply of these two currencies. This allows them to buy and sell currencies as needed to maintain their exchange rate at a fixed value.
What is an interbank rate?
The interbank rate, sometimes also called the mid-market rate, is used when banks exchange currencies with each other. This rate is usually better than the rate consumers receive. This is because exchange services aim to profit and often add a fee or markup to their exchange rate.
What factors influence the exchange rate?
Here is a brief explanation of some of the critical factors that help determine the exchange rate.
- Supply and demand – If there are many currencies and low or medium demand, the exchange rate is usually low. If there is less money in circulation and the demand is high, then the exchange rate increases.
- consumer confidence – When the population of a country is confident in the stability of its economy (low unemployment or inflation), consumer spending and investment tend to be higher. This makes the currency more attractive to investors, which results in a higher exchange rate.
- Trade balance – A country’s trade balance examines the value of exports relative to the value of imports. If the balance is not equal, it will affect the exchange rate. If exports are greater than imports, then the country sends more of its currency abroad. And the higher the supply of currencies, the lower the demand and the exchange rate.
- Inflation – Inflation is the rate at which the prices of goods and services increase over time within an economy. When a country has a consistently low rate of inflation, its currency is usually more valuable, which results in a higher exchange rate.
- Interest rate – Interest is the fee that banks charge consumers to borrow money. The higher the interest rate, the more you will be charged.
- Political unrest – Political upheavals cause uncertainty, which can discourage FOREX traders, reduce demand for the country’s currency and decrease its value.
- The country’s debt – If a country is indebted, its currency is considered a riskier option by foreign investors. This can lead to a drop in the value of the country’s currency and a fall in the exchange rate.
Where to get the best exchange rate?
A good exchange rate is as close to the interbank rate as possible. You can find out the current interbank rate by doing a quick search online. And while you can’t control the currency market, you can choose who you transfer or trade your money with. The two main options for sending money abroad are bank transfer or online money transfer.
Bank or building society transfers
Doing the international transfer with your bank or building society may seem like a simple option, but the service has its price.
Some banks charge a flat fee to send money overseas, which can be too expensive if you’re only sending a small amount of money. Many banks also offer low exchange rates, a tactic used to charge additional “hidden fees” on international transfers.
On top of that, wire transfers can be slow – sometimes taking days to arrive with the recipient, and not all recipients want or can receive money in their bank account.
Online money transfer services
Online money transfer services, like WorldRemit, tend to provide a faster, more cost-effective way to transfer money overseas. A good online money transfer service will only charge you a small fee and offer you a fair exchange rate, with all fees listed up front. They also often offer a variety of payment options, such as cash pickup, bank account transfer, mobile money, or airtime top-up.
Avoid low exchange rates when traveling
If you plan to travel outside of Ghana and need foreign currency, you can avoid the low exchange rates offered by banks, airports or money changers by using a money transfer service.
You can transfer money to your foreign bank account if you have one, or another popular option is to withdraw money from your money transfer service’s cash pickup agents while you are abroad.
Distributed by African Media Agency (AMA) on behalf of WorldRemit.